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This is not my area of expertise but, I felt the urge and obligation to bring you this information.  It is of the utmost importance due to the fact this might develop into some real answers to this maze we call the brain.

“A comprehensive and interactive atlas of the adult human brain that shows the activity of genes across the entire organ has been developed by scientists.

The map reveals the activity of genes across the entire brain to help shed light on neurological and psychiatric conditions.

Researchers at the Allen Institute for Brain Science,Seattle, US, created the atlas as a kind of ready reckoner for to compare and contrast their own findings from brain scans and genetic surveys, to unveil more secrets about psychiatric

conditions.

The atlas was reated from the scans of three ‘clinically unremarkable’ brains, donated following the deaths of a 24-year-old and 39-year-old man, and half a brain from a third man, the ‘Daily Mail’ reported.

There are more than 20,000 genes in the human genome, with 84 per cent of them being concentrated within the human brain.

To create the atlas, the scientists scanned the brains, before chopping them into small pieces. For each piece, they scanned for and recorded the activity levels of the 20,000 genes.

When the scans of the two complete brains were compared to each other, the team found what they believe is a ‘genetic blueprint’ for how the brain may be mapped out, with so many similarities in gene placement and usage.

Their next aim is to scan a female brain to see how it compares to the other gender.

The human brain is the most complex structure known to mankind and one of the greatest challenges in modern biology is to understand how it is built and organised. This allows us for the first time to overlay the human genome on to the human brain,” Seth Grant, professor at Edinburgh University, who helped create the map, said.

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics haves already announced to use the map to help research genes and brain symmetry.

More than 4,000 other researchers have already used the tool”.

Fascinating facts about the human brain

Physical Attributes

These facts will teach you interesting bits of information about the physical make-up of the human brain.

  • Weight. The weight of the human brain is about 3 lbs.
  • Cerebrum. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and makes up 85% of the brain’s weight.
  • Skin. Your skin weighs twice as much as your brain.
  • Gray matter. The brain’s gray matter is made up of neurons, which gather and transmit signals.
  • White matter. The white matter is made up of dendrites and axons, which create the network by which neurons send their signals.
  • Gray and white. Your brain is 60% white matter and 40% gray matter.
  • Water. The brain is made up of about 75% water.
  • Neurons. Your brain consists of about 100 billion neurons.
  • Synapses. There are anywhere from 1,000 to 10,000 synapses for each neuron.
  • No pain. There are no pain receptors in the brain, so the brain can feel no pain.
  • Largest brain. While an elephant’s brain is physically larger than a human brain, the human brain is 2% of total body weight (compared to 0.15% of an elephant’s brain), meaning humans have the largest brain to body size.
  • Blood vessels. There are 100,000 miles of blood vessels in the brain.
  • Fat. The human brain is the fattest organ in the body and may consists of at least 60% fat.
  • The Developing Brain
  • Starting from within the womb, fetal brain development begins the amazing journey that leads to a well-developed brain at birth that continues to grow for 18 more years.
  • Neurons. Neurons develop at the rate of 250,000 neurons per minute during early pregnancy.
  • Size at birth. At birth, your brain was almost the same size as an adult brain and contained most of the brain cells for your whole life.
  • Newborn’s growth. A newborn baby’s brain grows about three times its size in the first year.
  • Stopped growing. Your brain stopped growing at age 18.
  • Cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex grows thicker as you learn to use it.
  • Stimulation. A stimulating environment for a child can make the difference between a 25% greater ability to learn or 25% less in an environment with little stimulation.
  • New neurons. Humans continue to make new neurons throughout life in response to mental activity.
  • Read aloud. Reading aloud and talking often to a young child promotes brain development.
  • Emotions. The capacity for such emotions as joy, happiness, fear, and shyness are already developed at birth. The specific type of nurturing a child receives shapes how these emotions are developed.
  • First sense. The first sense to develop while in utero is the sense of touch. The lips and cheeks can experience touch at about 8 weeks and the rest of the body around 12 weeks.
  • Bilingual brains. Children who learn two languages before the age of five alters the brain structure and adults have a much denser gray matter.
  • Child abuse and the brain. Studies have shown that child abuse can inhibit development of the brain and can permanently affect brain development.

Brain Function

From the invisible workings of the brain to more visible responses such as yawns or intelligence, find out how the brain functions with these facts.

  • Oxygen. Your brain uses 20% of the total oxygen in your body.
  • Blood. As with oxygen, your brain uses 20% of the blood circulating in your body.
  • Unconsciousness. If your brain loses blood for 8 to 10 seconds, you will lose consciousness.
  • Speed. Information can be processed as slowly as 0.5 meters/sec or as fast as 120 meters/sec (about 268 miles/hr).
  • Wattage. While awake, your brain generates between 10 and 23 watts of power–or enough energy to power a light bulb.
  • Yawns. It is thought that a yawn works to send more oxygen to the brain, therefore working to cool it down and wake it up.
  • Neocortex. The neocortex makes up about 76% of the human brain and is responsible for language and consciousness. The human neocortex is much larger than in animals.
  • 10%. The old adage of humans only using 10% of their brain is not true. Every part of the brain has a known function.
  • Brain death. The brain can live for 4 to 6 minutes without oxygen, and then it begins to die. No oxygen for 5 to 10 minutes will result in permanent brain damage.
  • Highest temperature. The next time you get a fever, keep in mind that thehighest human body temperature ever recorded was 115.7 degrees–and the man survived.
  • Stress. Excessive stress has shown to “alter brain cells, brain structure and brain function.”
  • Love hormones and autism. Oxytocin, one of the hormones responsible for triggering feelings of love in the brain, has shown some benefits to helping control repetitive behaviors in those with autism.
  • Food and intelligence. A study of one million students in New York showed that students who ate lunches that did not include artificial flavors, preservatives, and dyes did 14% better on IQ tests than students who ate lunches with these additives.
  • Seafood. In the March 2003 edition of Discover magazine, a report describes how people in a 7-year study who ate seafood at least one time every week had a 30% lower occurrence of dementia.

I hope this article was beneficial.  Please comment!

credit: indianexpress.com  &  nursingassistantcentral.com

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Comments on: "“BRAIN” the most complex structure known to mankind" (4)

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